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    What Is Composting and How to Make Compost at Home

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    What Is Composting and How to Make Compost at Home

    In the quest for a greener and more sustainable lifestyle, composting has emerged as a simple yet impactful practice. So, what is composting, and how can you turn kitchen scraps and yard waste into nutrient-rich soil for your garden? Join us on a journey to discover the art of composting, an eco-friendly solution that not only reduces waste but also enriches your surroundings.

    Composting is the natural process of recycling organic materials, such as food scraps and fresh grass clippings, into a nutrient-packed soil conditioner. It's a win-win for both your household and the environment. In this blog, we'll delve into the basics of composting and guide you through the steps to create your compost right at home.

    Ready to make a positive impact while nurturing your garden? Let's explore the wonders of composting together!

    Introduction to Composting

    Composting is a natural process that transforms organic materials into nutrient-rich soil conditioner, known as compost. This sustainable practice involves recycling organic matter or nitrogen-rich materials like fruit and vegetable scraps with carbon-rich materials such as dry leaves, creating a balanced environment for decomposition. The resulting compost serves as a valuable soil amendment, healthy soil, water retention, and overall plant growth. Unlike synthetic fertilizers, compost releases nutrients gradually, promoting sustainable gardening practices and reducing the environmental impact of waste.

    The finished compost can be incorporated into potting soil, mixed with existing garden soil, or used as a top dressing, providing a natural and eco-friendly solution for improving soil health and fostering robust plant growth.

    Importance of Composting

    Waste Reduction:

    Composting helps significantly reducing the amount of waste that goes to landfills. Organic waste, like food scraps and yard waste, constitutes a large portion of landfill content. By composting, this organic waste is diverted from landfills, thereby reducing the overall waste volume.

    Soil Health Improvement:

    Compost adds vital nutrients back into the soil. It improves soil structure, texture, and aeration, and increases the soil's water retention capacity. This enriched soil is better for growing plants, as it nourishes them more effectively.

    Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

    When organic waste decomposes in landfills, it produces methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Composting this material aerobically (with oxygen) significantly reduces methane emissions, thus helping in the fight against climate change.

    Promotes Biodiversity:

    Compost introduces beneficial microorganisms and insects to the soil. These organisms are essential for a healthy ecosystem, as they break down organic material, enriching the soil and making it more fertile.

    Sustainable Gardening and Agriculture:

    Using compost in gardens and farms reduces the need for chemical fertilizers. Compost provides a natural and sustainable alternative, offering essential nutrients to plants and helping to maintain a natural balance in the environment.

    Types of Composting

    There are various methods of composting, each with its unique characteristics:

    1. Traditional Composting:

    Traditional composting involves creating a pile or bin with a mix of green and brown materials. Over time, microorganisms break down the organic matter, producing nutrient-rich compost. This method is versatile and suitable for backyard composting.

    2. Vermicomposting:

    Vermicomposting utilizes worms, typically red worms (Eisenia fetida), to decompose organic waste. Worms consume kitchen scraps and transform them into nutrient-dense castings. This method is well-suited for indoor or small-space composting.

    3. Bokashi Composting:

    Bokashi is a Japanese method that ferments organic waste using specialized bran infused with effective microorganisms. It is an anaerobic process that can compost a wider range of materials, including meat and dairy. Bokashi composting is odor-free and compact.

    4. Trench Composting:

    Trench composting involves digging a trench in the garden and burying organic waste directly. As the waste decomposes underground, it enriches the soil. This method is beneficial for large amounts of garden waste and is an easy way to recycle organic matter directly in the garden.

    5. Compost Tumblers:

    Compost tumblers are enclosed bins with a rotating mechanism. They simplify the turning process, providing aeration and accelerating decomposition. Tumblers are convenient for those with limited space or time, and they produce compost more quickly than traditional methods.

    6. Community Composting:

    Community composting involves a collective effort where individuals contribute their organic waste to a central composting site. This fosters a sense of community and shared environmental responsibility. Community composting can be organized through local government initiatives or community-led programs.

    7. Hot Composting or Thermophilic Composting:

    Hot composting relies on the activity of thermophilic microorganisms that thrive in high temperatures. By maintaining a proper balance of green and brown materials and turning the pile regularly, hot composting achieves faster decomposition and produces high-quality compost.

    8. Sheet Composting or Lasagna Gardening:

    Sheet composting involves layering organic materials directly on the garden bed without turning. This mimics the natural decomposition process, and over time, the compost piles break down, enriching the soil. Lasagna gardening is a specific form of sheet composting named for its layered approach.

    9. Compost Tea Production:

    Compost tea is a liquid fertilizer created by steeping compost in water. This nutrient-rich liquid is then used to water plants or applied as a foliar spray. Compost tea provides a concentrated form of compost benefits for plants.

    Materials Suitable for Composting

    To create successful compost, it's crucial to understand the types of materials suitable for composting:

    Green Materials

    1. Fruit Peels: Banana peels, citrus peels, and other fruit and vegetable scraps add nitrogen and moisture to the compost.

    2. Vegetable Trimmings: Leftover vegetable parts, like stems and peels, contribute nitrogen and enhance microbial activity.

    3. Coffee Grounds: Used coffee grounds are an excellent source of nitrogen and add beneficial acidity to the compost.

    4. Grass Clippings: Fresh grass clippings provide nitrogen and help maintain a balanced compost pile.

    5. Plant Trimmings: Yard Trimmings from healthy plants contribute nitrogen and organic matter to the compost.

    Brown Materials

    1. Dry Leaves: Fallen leaves are rich in carbon and help create a well-aerated compost pile.

    2. Straw: Straw adds carbon and structure to the compost, preventing it from becoming too compact.

    3. Cardboard: Shredded cardboard or paper provides carbon and aids in moisture retention.

    4. Twigs and Small Branches: Chopped twigs and small branches contribute carbon and help create air pockets in the compost.

    5. Newspaper: Shredded newspaper acts as a carbon-rich material and assists in maintaining proper moisture levels.

    Items to Avoid

    1. Meat and Dairy Products: These can attract pests and may not break down efficiently in a home composting system.

    2. Diseased Plants: Plants affected by diseases may introduce pathogens to the compost, which could persist in the finished product.

    3. Pet Waste: Pet feces may contain harmful bacteria and parasites, making it unsuitable for home composting.

    4. Oily or Greasy Items: Cooking oils and greasy foods can disrupt the composting process and create unpleasant odors.

    5. Inorganic Materials: Plastics, metals, and other inorganic materials do not decompose and should not be included in compost.

    Setting Up Your Compost Bins

    Setting up your compost bins is a straightforward process that lays the foundation for successful composting:

    1. Choose a Suitable Location:

    Select a location for your compost bins that is convenient and accessible. Choose an area with good drainage to prevent waterlogging. If possible, place the bins in partial shade to regulate temperature and moisture levels. Ensure there is enough space for turning and accessing the compost.

    2. Select the Right Compost Bins:

    Choose compost bins that suit your needs and available space. Options include traditional bins, tumblers, or vermicomposting bins. Consider factors such as capacity, aeration, and insulation properties. Ensure the chosen bins are durable and have lids to cover the compost, preventing pests and retaining moisture.

    How to Start Composting at Home 

    Let's get our hands dirty and delve into the step-by-step process of making compost at home.

    1. Choose a Composting Method

    There are various composting methods to suit different preferences and available space. Popular options include traditional compost bins, vermiculture (worm composting), and compost tumblers. Select the method that aligns with your needs and space constraints.

    2. Select a Composting Bin or Container

    Once you've chosen a composting method, invest in a suitable bin or container. Ensure it has good aeration, drainage, and insulation properties. Options range from DIY bins to commercially available composting systems.

    3. Collect Compostable Materials

    Gather a mix of "green" (nitrogen-rich) and "brown" (carbon-rich) materials. Green materials include kitchen scraps like fruit and vegetable peels, while brown materials encompass items such as dry leaves, cardboard, and newspaper. Aim for a balanced ratio to promote effective decomposition.

    4. Layer and Turn the Compost Pile

    Start your compost pile by layering green and brown materials. Regularly turn the pile to enhance aeration and accelerate decomposition. Turning the compost helps distribute moisture and ensures that the breakdown process occurs evenly.

    5. Monitor and Adjust

    Managing the moisture level and temperature of a compost pile is crucial for efficient composting. Here's how you can control these factors and what the ideal conditions are:

    Moisture Level

    1. Ideal Moisture Content: Your compost pile should have a moisture content akin to a wrung-out sponge. This is usually around 40-60% moisture. If you grab a handful of compost and squeeze it, a few drops of water should be able to be squeezed out. If it’s too dry, it will slow down the composting process, and if it’s too wet, it will lead to odors and a lack of oxygen in the pile.

    2. Controlling Moisture:

    Adding Water: If the compost is too dry, add water to the pile until it reaches the desired moisture level.

    Adjusting Materials: Mix in dry materials like straw, leaves, or shredded newspaper if the compost is too wet. If it's too dry, add wet materials like food scraps or grass clippings.



    1. Ideal Temperature Range: The ideal temperature for a compost pile is between 90°F to 140°F (32°C to 60°C). This range is effective for killing pathogens and weed seeds, and for speeding up the composting process.

    2. Controlling Temperature:

    • Turning the Pile: Regularly turning the compost pile helps distribute heat and aerates the pile, promoting microbial activity which increases the temperature.

    • Balancing Materials: A good balance of green nitrogen-rich materials (like kitchen scraps and grass clippings) and brown; carbon-rich materials (like dry leaves and straw) is important for maintaining the right temperature. A ratio of about 1 part green to 2-3 parts brown is often recommended.

    • Insulation: In colder weather, insulating your compost pile with a tarp or straw can help retain heat.


    • Moisture Meter: You can use a moisture meter to precisely measure the moisture level of your compost

    • Compost Thermometer: A long-stemmed thermometer designed for compost piles can help you monitor the temperature accurately

    Additional Tips

    • Size of the Pile: A larger pile retains heat better but needs to be manageable for turning. A good size is at least 3 feet by 3 feet by 3 feet.

    • Aeration: Ensure your pile has enough air flow, as oxygen is needed for the composting process.

    • Seasonal Adjustments: Be aware that you might need to adjust your practices based on the season, especially in very wet or cold conditions.

    6. Harvest the Compost

    Knowing when your compost is ready to use involves observing a few key characteristics:

    1. Appearance: Ready compost typically looks like dark, crumbly topsoil. It should be uniform in texture, without any recognizable pieces of the original organic materials.

    2. Smell: Good compost smells earthy and pleasant, like forest soil. If it has a sour or unpleasant odor, it may not be fully decomposed or might have gone anaerobic due to poor aeration or excessive moisture.

    3. Temperature: The compost should be close to the ambient temperature. During the composting process, the pile heats up due to microbial activity. When the composting process is complete, it cools down because the microbial activity has significantly reduced.

    4. Time: Depending on the conditions (like the size of the pile, the types of materials, and the level of maintenance), compost can take anywhere from a few months to a couple of years to become fully processed. In general, a well-maintained pile can produce finished compost in about 3 to 6 months.

    5. No Heat Generation After Turning: When you turn a compost pile that's still breaking down, it will heat up again as microbes become active. Finished compost won't heat up noticeably after being turned.

    6. Plant Test: If you're unsure, you can perform a simple plant test. Mix some of the compost with potting soil and plant a few seeds in it. If the seeds germinate and the plants look healthy, the compost is likely finished and safe to use.

    How to Use Compost in Your Garden

    Incorporate into Soil:

    Mix compost thoroughly into your garden soil to enhance fertility and structure. This helps provide essential nutrients to plants and improves the soil's ability to retain water, promoting overall plant health.

    Top-Dress Plants:

    Gently apply a layer of compost around the base of your plants, commonly known as top-dressing. This method enriches the soil around existing plants without disturbing their roots, supplying a slow release of nutrients over time.


    Utilize compost as a mulch layer around plants to help control weeds, regulate soil temperature, and retain moisture. Mulching with compost also contributes to the gradual release of nutrients into the soil.

    Seed Starting Mix:

    Blend compost with other growing mediums to create a nutrient-rich seed starting mix. The compost provides young plants with essential nutrients as they germinate and begin their growth.

    Container Gardening:

    Incorporate compost into potting mixes for container gardening. The organic matter in compost improves the structure and water-holding capacity of the mix, creating an optimal environment for container plants.

    Troubleshooting Common Composting Issues

    Composting materials may encounter challenges, but with the right approach, these issues can be resolved.

    1. Foul Odor

    If your compost pile emits a foul odor, it may be too wet or have an imbalance of green and brown materials. Add more brown materials, turn the pile to improve aeration, and ensure proper moisture levels. Avoid adding dairy, meat, or oily items, as they can contribute to unpleasant smells.

    2. Slow Decomposition

    Slow decomposition could result from a lack of nitrogen or insufficient aeration. Add more green materials, such as kitchen scraps or fresh plant material, and turn the compost regularly. Ensure a balanced mix of green and brown materials to optimize the composting process.

    3. Pests

    Unwanted pests like flies or rodents can be attracted to your compost if it contains food scraps that are not buried deep enough. Mix food waste thoroughly into the compost, cover it with a layer of brown materials, and avoid adding meat or dairy products. Consider using a compost bin with a secure lid.

    4. Excessive Moisture

    An overly wet compost pile can lead to anaerobic conditions and a foul smell. Add more dry brown materials like leaves or shredded newspaper to absorb excess moisture. Turning the compost regularly will also help maintain proper moisture levels.

    5. Unpleasant Appearance

    If your compost looks slimy or has a gooey texture, it might be too wet. Add more brown materials and turn the pile to enhance aeration. A well-aerated compost pile should have a crumbly texture and an earthy smell.

    6. Not Heating Up

    A lack of heat in your compost pile indicates a potential imbalance in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Ensure a good mix of green and brown materials, and consider adding a nitrogen source like fresh grass clippings or manure. Turning the compost regularly will help distribute heat evenly.

    7. Overly Dry Compost

    If your compost is too dry and lacks moisture, add water gradually while turning the pile. Ensure that the compost materials are consistently damp, similar to a wrung-out sponge, to support microbial activity and decomposition.

    Tips for Composting in Different Climates

    Adapting your composting practices to your climate ensures success regardless of where you live.

    Cold Climates

    Insulate Your Compost Pile: In colder climates, insulate your compost pile using materials like straw or leaves. This helps retain heat generated during the decomposition process, supporting microbial activity even in low temperatures.

    Use Insulated Bins: Consider using insulated compost bins, especially during winter, to provide additional protection against the cold. Insulated bins help maintain a more stable temperature inside, promoting efficient decomposition.

    Choose Cold-Tolerant Materials: Opt for cold-tolerant materials in your compost mix, such as pine needles and evergreen leaves. These materials break down more easily in colder conditions, ensuring a continuous composting process.

    Layer Green and Brown Materials: Layer your compost with a mix of green and brown materials. This balanced ratio facilitates decomposition and helps generate heat even in colder climates.

    Warm Climates

    Monitor Moisture Levels: In warmer climates, keep a close eye on moisture levels in your compost. Hot temperatures can accelerate evaporation, potentially drying out the pile. Add water as needed to maintain the optimal moisture balance.

    Frequent Turning: Turn the compost more frequently in warm climates. This helps aerate the pile, preventing anaerobic conditions and promoting faster decomposition. Regular turning also assists in distributing heat evenly throughout the compost.

    Shade the Compost Pile: Provide shade for your compost pile to prevent excessive heating, especially during scorching summers. This can be achieved by placing the compost bin in a shaded area or covering it with a light-colored material.

    Select Heat-Resistant Materials: Choose compost materials that are resilient to high temperatures. Items like straw, dried leaves, and wood chips are effective in warmer climates and contribute to maintaining an optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio.

    Adjust Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio: Be mindful of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in your compost. In warmer conditions, microbial activity may increase, requiring a balanced mix of green and brown materials to support the decomposition process.


    In conclusion, composting is a fantastic way to turn kitchen and yard waste into nutrient-rich soil. It's a simple process that benefits both the environment and your garden.

    To make compost at home, keep it simple. Mix kitchen scraps (greens) with leaves and cardboard (browns), maintain the right moisture, and turn the compost regularly. This mix encourages the breakdown of organic matter, creating a thriving environment for helpful microorganisms.

    By composting, you not only reduce waste but also produce a valuable resource for your plants. Start small, play around with it, and see the magic of composting transform your waste into a green and healthy future. So, what is composting? It's an easy and impactful way to care for our planet and nurture your garden.


    1. How long does it take to make compost at home?

      • The time varies but usually ranges from a few weeks to several months, depending on factors like materials used and environmental conditions.

    2. Can I compost in an apartment?

      • Yes, you can practice vermicomposting or use specialized indoor composting bins in apartments.

    3. What should I do if my compost smells bad?

      • Adjust the balance of green and brown materials, ensure proper aeration, and avoid adding items that may cause odors.

    4. Can I compost pet waste?

      • It's best to avoid composting pet waste due to the risk of pathogens. Consider specialized pet waste composting systems.

    5. How much space do I need for composting?

      • Composting can be adapted to various spaces. Even small yards or balconies can accommodate composting bins.

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